An Attempt at Neutrality
There was one modern state in which republicanism was neither revolutionary nor inherently antireligious. This was the United States of America.
The Age of Utopia: Christendom from the Renaissance to the Russian Revolution, by John Strickland
There was this idea of popular sovereignty – yes, in a republican form, but underlying this was the vote. Strickland offers that this idea had its roots in the congregationalist polity of churches during colonial times.
This tradition was brought to North America by the Puritans in the early 17th century, a tradition that wanted to move away from the earlier tradition of a hierarchy with a bishop at the top. Institutions such as Harvard University, Bowdoin College and Yale University, were founded to train Congregational clergy.
…by embracing a postmillennial view of history…[Jonathan] Edwards and other evangelicals stimulated hopes that a broadly equitable society could be created.
Which inevitably leads to Murray Rothbard, who has commented on these post-millennial pietist Protestants:
From the 1830s until after World War I, northern, “Yankee,” mainstream Protestants (with the exception of old-style Calvinists and high-church Lutherans) were captured by an aggressive and militant post-millennial pietism whose objective was to use government to stamp out “sin” (especially liquor and the Catholic Church), and who made the lives of Catholic and German Lutheran immigrants miserable and put them under constant attack for nearly a century.
Further, from chapter four of his book, The Progressive Era, Rothbard writes:
Briefly, the [Professor Paul] Kleppner thesis holds that “Pietist” religious groups tended (a) to favor statism, both in the personal and the economic spheres, and (b) therefore consistently supported the Republicans as the statist party, while the Liturgicals, consisting largely of Catholics and conservative Lutherans (a) favored liberty, both in the personal and economic spheres, and (b) therefore supported the Democrats as the Libertarian party.
Returning to Strickland, the view of these Protestants dovetailed nicely with the views of the anti-evangelical philosophes – in their case, the world will see progress to the extent it sheds the idea of original sin and fallen man: man can achieve perfection, but only when he removes God from th
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