The Supreme Court Tackles Police Shootings, Excessive Force, and the Fourth Amendment
The U.S. Supreme Court has long recognized that the Fourth Amendment right to be free from “unreasonable…seizure” includes the right to be free from unreasonable “seizure of the person,” meaning detainment or arrest. What is more, as the Court held in California v. Hodari D. (1991), “the mere grasping or application of physical force with lawful authority, whether or not it succeeded in subduing the arrestee,” qualifies as a seizure for Fourth Amendment purposes.
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 10th Circuit, however, apparently never got the memo. In Torres v. Madrid (2019), that court held that no seizure occurred when officers with the New Mexico State Police shot Roxanne Torres twice in the back,
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